The Karoo is the largest ecosystem in South Africa and is home to a fascinating diversity of life, all having adapted to survive an unforgiving landscape. Natural gas exploration has now come to invade this magnificent land in order to exploit its natural resources. A moratorium has been placed on granting exploration licenses to major fuel companies, which allows them to use hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, as a means to extract gas from the earth. Hydraulic fracturing is a drilling technique used to extract shale gas from deep underground. It involves pumping enormous volumes of water, sand and chemicals into horizontally drilled wells under great pressure to shatter the rock layer and release trapped gas.